الرئيسية Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology The Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Otitis Media and Sequelae
أبلغ عن مشكلةThis book has a different problem? Report it to us
إختار نعم إذا كان إختار نعم إذا كان إختار نعم إذا كان إختار نعم إذا كان
نجحت في فتح الملف
يحتوي الملف على كتاب (يُسمح أيضًا بالرسوم الهزلية)
محتوى الكتاب مقبول
يتوافق الإسم و المؤلف و لغة الملف مع وصف الكتاب. تجاهل الخانات الأخرى لأنها ثانوية!
إختار لا إذا كان إختار لا إذا كان إختار لا إذا كان إختار لا إذا كان
- الملف تالف
- الملف محمي بواسطة الوسائل التقنية لحماية حق المؤلف DRM.
- الملف ليس كتاب (علي سبيل المثال، xls, html, xml)
- الملف عبارة عن مقال
- الملف مقتطف من كتاب
- الملف عبارة عن مجلة
- الملف نموذج إختبار
- الملف سبام
هل تعتقد أن محتوى الكتاب غير مناسب ويجب حظره
لا يتطابق الإسم أو المؤلف أو لغة الملف مع وصف الكتاب. تجاهل الخانات الأخرى.
Change your answer
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 DOI 10.3342/ceo.2008.1.3.117 Review The Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Otitis Media and Sequelae Steven K. Juhn, MD Min-Kyo Jung, MD Mark D. Hoffman, MD Brian R. Drew, MD Diego A. Preciado, MD Nicholas J. Sausen, BS Timothy T.K. Jung, MD1 Bo Hyung Kim, MD Sang-Yoo Park, MD Jizhen Lin, MD Frank G. Ondrey, MD David R. Mains, BS Tina Huang, MD Department of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN; 1Department of Otolaryngology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA This review deals with the characteristics of various inflammatory mediators identified in the middle ear during otitis media and in cholesteatoma. The role of each inflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of otitis media and cholesteatoma has been discussed. Further, the relation of each inflammatory mediator to the pathophysiology of the middle and inner ear along with its mechanisms of pathological change has been described. The mechanisms of hearing loss including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) as a sequela of otitis media are also discussed. The passage of inflammatory mediators through the round window membrane into the scala tympani is indicated. In an experimental animal model, an application of cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial toxin, on the round window membrane induced sensorineural hearing loss as identified through auditory brainstem response threshold shifts. An increase in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) was observed following application of these inflammatory mediators and LPS. The leakage of the blood components into the lateral wall of the cochlea through an increase in BLB permeability appears to be related to the sensorineural hearing loss by hindering K+ recycling through the lateral wall disrupting the ion homeostasis of the endolymph. Further studies on the roles of various inflammatory mediators and bacterial toxins in inducing the sensorin; eumral hearing loss in otitis media should be pursued. Key Words. Otitis media, Inflammatory mediators, Cytokines, Chemokines, Cholesteatoma, Sensorineural hearing loss INTRODUCTION persistent stimuli, typified by the accumulation of both cellular and chemical mediators in the middle ear cleft (1). These mediators have a role in the inflammatory processes of the middle ear such as vascular permeability changes, chemotaxis, stimulation of epithelial secretory activity, enhancement of mucous glycoprotein secretion, and production of other mediators. This paper aims to review the important studies of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of OM and cholesteatoma in order to elucidate which mediators are the most significant. In addition, this paper reviews studies that have identified possible key factors responsible for the chronicity of OM. The immune system responds to injury or irritation through an innate cascade known as inflammation. There are many cellular and biochemical events which occur as a result of tissue injury which are responsible for the outcome of inflammation. Central to the formation of inflammation are the inflammatory mediators, which include proteins, peptides, glycoproteins, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes), nitric oxide, and oxygen free radicals. These compounds are produced by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Inflammatory mediators are a double-edged sword, having the potential to fight off infection, but also to damage the host. Otitis media (OM) is an inflammatory response to either acute or INFLAMMATION AND OM �Received September 13, 2008 Accepted after revision September 20, 2008 Initiation of inflammation �Corresponding author : Steven K. Juhn, MD Department of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 209 Lions Research Building, 2001 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Tel : +1-612-626-9879, Fax : +1-612-626-9871 E-mail : email@example.com OM is frequently caused by bacteria which enter the middle ear from the nasopharynx via the eustachian tube. In cases of bacterial otitis media, the source of bacteria is currently believed to be the nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids). However, cases of sterile OM are not uncommon and the mechanism of this condition is 117 118 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 Resolution Infection Bacterial Viral Other Mediators of inflammation Increased vascular permeability Epithelial secretory activity Eustachian tube dysfunction Middle ear inflammation and effusion Sequelae Complications Mechanical Functional Fig. 1. Pathogenesis of otitis media. currently unclear. Endotoxin, a component of bacterial cell walls, is believed to be responsible for initiating inflammation in the middle ear. Endotoxin is a potent inducer of various inflammatory mediators, as well as a modulator of the immune response, and stimulates local macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α ) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β ). In addition, keratinocytes have the ability to produce many soluble mediators independently from immune cells in response to injury, including TNF-α , IL-β , IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 (2-5). Many of these cytokines contribute to the acute phase of the inflammatory response, prime the immune system for rapid activity, and promote the release of other cytokines (Fig. 1). Sources of inflammatory mediators Inflammatory mediators important in OM are produced by infiltrating immune cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. In addition, local cells such as keratinocytes and mast cells have been shown to produce inflammatory mediators. It is also coming to light that besides the middle ear, the inner ear tissues are able to produce inflammatory cytokines and use NF-κ B activation (6). The sources and functions of inflammatory mediators involved in OM are summarized in Table 1. Complements Complement is one of the first mediators activated in the initiation of inflammation throughout the body and in OM. This pathway can act as the first cytotoxic response to invasion while also initiating recruitment of leukocytes and vascular changes. Complement is part of the humoral immune system and consists of multiple components that when activated, usually through cleavage, interact to form enzymes or function as binding proteins. Intravascular activation of complement is initiated via a variety of agents including antigen-antibody complexes, bacterial products, and toxins; injured endothelial cells can also activate the complement system (7). The complement system is organized as two pathways with C3 occupying the central position in both. Binding of antibody to antigen or to foreign molecules results in activation of the antibody-dependent classical pathway, whereas the alter- native pathway is activated by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) portion of endotoxin and other nonprotein agents. C3 is biologically inactive, but cleavage by C3 convertase yields active fragments including C3a and C3b. Deposition of the active cleavage product C3b on the surface of foreign particles or target cells allows recognition by receptors on phagocytic cells. C3a is a potent activator of mast cells and basophils and leads to release of histamine from secretory granules. Proteolytic cleavage of C5 occurs via both pathways and generates C5a, a potent mediator of inflammation. C5a is the major complement-derived chemotactic agent for neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages. C5a also has the ability to activate platelets, leading to their aggregation and surface expression of P-selectin. Complement activation has been observed in human middle ear effusion by some authors (8, 9). In animal models of acute otitis media (AOM), animals were treated with cobra venom to deplete complement and then their middle ears were antigenically challenged (10). Complement-depleted animals had significantly less inflammation and decreased volume of effusion when compared to controls. Middle ear mucosa from children with chronic otitis media (COM) with effusion has shown large amounts of complement fragments C3 and C9 when analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy (11). In humans, deficiencies of the complement system are known to cause recurrent or COM (12). Despite this fact, it appears that complement itself may be harmful to the middle ear mucosa. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) and protectin (CD59) are two middle ear proteins which help prevent unrestricted complement damage (11). Cytokines Cytokines are glycoproteins, produced by inflammatory cells and epithelial cells, which modulate the immune response. Cytokines extensively conduct inter-cell communication. Inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes use cytokines to coordinate all stages of the inflammatory response. Production of cytokines is conducted by a wide variety of cell types. For example, IL-1 is produced and secreted by macrophages, lymphocytes, vascular endothelial cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts, and monocytes. There are many biological effects including: chemotaxis of cytotoxic T-cells and B-lymphocytes, cytokine synthesis of IL-2 and IL8 and TNF, neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation, fibroblast and epithelial proliferation, and histamine release (13, 14). The present theory is that cytokines are responsible for many of the inflammatory changes induced by pathogenic organisms during OM (15). Different cytokines are involved in the early and late stages of inflammation and it has been observed in a bilateral study of effusion that cytokine production and concentration can vary between the ears (16). IL-1 and TNF-αare early-response cytokines with IL-1 being a more potent activator than TNF-α(17). IL-1 may be more important than TNF-αin the elicitation stage of inflammation, while there is more of a need for TNF- αduring recruit- Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators 119 Table 1. Sources and functions of inflammatory mediators important in otitis media Inflammatory mediator Cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α Interleukin-1 Interleukin-2 Interleukin-4 Interleukin-5 Interleukin-6 Interleukin-10 Interleukin-12 Interleukin-13 Transforming growth factor-β Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor Chemokines Interleukin-8 RANTES MCP-1 Histamine Vascular endothelial growth factor Platelet activating factor Mast cells Arachidonic acid metabolites Prostaglandins Prostaglandin E2 Source Macrophages Lymphocytes Epithelial cells Endothelial cells Macrophages Neutrophils Fibroblasts Endothelial cells Epithelial cells T-cells T-cells Mast cells Basophils T-cells Mast cells Basophils Macrophages Lymphocytes Epithelial cells Macrophages Macrophages Neutrophils Langerhans cells T-cells Neutrophils Macrophages Macrophages Macrophages Fibroblasts Epithelial cells Endothelial cells Epithelial cells Epithelial cells Mast cells Basophils Thrombocytes Principal activities Prostaglandin release, activates neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, cytokine release Activates B- and T-cells, epithelial and fibroblast proliferation, cytokine synthesis, histamine release, induces fever, bone resorption Activates T-cells Stimulates TH2 differentiation and proliferation, anti-inflammatory action on T cells, B cells, monocytes Stimulates and maintains IgA production by B-cells, eosinophil chemotaxis Stimulates eosinophil production in bone marrow Activates B- and T-cells, production of antibodies, induces fever, bone resorption Down regulates inflammatory properties of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α Interferon release, activates macrophages, potentiates T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of lymphocytes. Induces TH1 lympocyte development Similar to IL-4; molecular bridge linking allergic inflammation cells to the non-immune cells in contact with them Initiation and maturation of inflammatory processes; recruitment, activation, and proliferation of inflammatory tissues and cells Stimulates production of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) Neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, angiogenesis Monocyte and T-cell chemotaxis Monocyte and T-cell chemotaxis Increases vascular permeability, vasodilation, neutrophil and eosinophil chemotaxis Increases vascular permeability, vasodilation, inflammatory cell infiltration Monocyte Chemotaxis and degranulation of neutrophils, increase vascular permeability Neutrophils (1,000× more potent than histamine) Lymphocytes Bone marrow Release of preformed mediators: histamine and tryptase expressing CD34 Release of de novo synthesized mediators: leukotrienes and prostaglandins molecule Mast cells Neutrophils Monocytes Vasodilation, mucus production, induces cytoprotection to IL-1 (Continued to the next page) 120 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 Table 1. (Continued from the previous page) Sources and functions of inflammatory mediators important in otitis media Inflammatory mediator Prostaglandin I2 Leukotrienes LTB4 LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 Bradykinins Source Principal activities Endothelial cells Vasodilation, inhibits platelet aggregation Neutrophils Mast cells Basophils Eosinophils Plasma Chemotaxis and degranulation of neutrophils Increased vascular permeability, vasoconstriction Increased vascular permeability, pain RANTES: regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted; MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1; IL-1: interleukin-1; TNF- α : tumor necrosis factor-α. ment and maintenance stages (18, 19). IL-1 and TNF-αfrom macrophages induce the expression of glycoprotein adhesion molecules on the surface of vascular endothelial cells which bind leukocytes so they can leave the circulation and enter the site of infection. IL-1 IL-1 was originally identified as a lymphokine that was mitogenic for murine thymocytes (20). Now IL-1 is known to be produced by many different cells to regulate immune responses (21). IL-1 is one of the most active substances inducing bone resorption through osteoclast activation (22). This IL-1-mediated bone destruction is one of the clinical characteristics that signal the onset of chronic OM. Neutrophils are a major producer of IL-1β . IL-1 induces the production of IL-1 in neutrophils in a positive-feedback mechanism (23). IL-1 has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of TNF, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 (24-27). IL-1 is comprised of two principal 17kDa polypeptides, IL-1αand IL-1β . Genes found on chromosome 2 encode these two molecular species (28). They have the same biological activities and bind to the same receptor on cell surfaces (28, 29). Both IL-1αand IL-1βare derived by proteolytic cleavage of 33 kDa precursor molecules (28). IL1αacts as a membrane-associated substance, whereas IL-1βis found free in the circulation (30). IL-1 promotes the release of other cytokines and stimulates arachidonic acid metabolism in both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways (21, 31). IL-1 is primarily synthesized by activated macrophages. In these, IL-1 production is stimulated by LPS and leukotrienes (28, 32, 33). TNF also stimulates synthesis of IL-1 (14). Platelet activating factor (PAF) can enhance IL1 release by the production of leukotriene metabolites (34). IL1βis mainly produced and released extracellularly by inflammatory cells such as macrophages/monocytes (35) and IL-1αis localized intracellularly or on the surface of such cells (36). IL-1 induces cell adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) that in turn stimulate the migration of leukocytes (18, 37). IL-lβhas been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). When introduced into the murine middle ear, endotoxin derived from Haemophilus influenzae produced middle ear effusion (MEE) with significantly higher levels of IL-1βthan controls, and inoculation of IL-1β caused similar pathologic changes to that of endotoxin. It has been observed that IL-1βupregulates the activity of sodium-potassiumchloride cotransporters. Also, IL-1βsuppresses epithelial Na+ channel-dependent fluid transport. This upregulation of cotransporters may be one of the important factors in the excess fluid accumulation that is observed in OM (38, 39). Additionally, the administration of anti-IL-1 receptor antibodies with endotoxin reduced the incidence of MEE and the pathological changes of the middle ear mucosa (40). Viable pneumococci inoculated into the middle ear of chinchillas caused an increased concentration of IL-1βafter 6 hr (41). In a guinea pig OM model induced with nonviable H. influenzae, Sato et al. (42) suggested that IL-1βand TNF-αwere produced by middle ear mucosa in the early stage of OM, which caused subsequent inflammatory cell accumulation and further production of cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF-αin the late stage. Barzilai et al. (43) showed that IL-1 levels were significantly higher in culture-positive versus culture-negative AOM. Levels of IL-1 significantly decreased on days 4-5 of antibiotic therapy whether the bacteria were eradicated or not. This is in contrast to measured levels of TNF-α, which are more closely correlated with the presence of bacteria (44). On the other hand, it has been shown that age is inversely related to the concentration or detection rate of IL-1βby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the MEE of OME patients. Therefore, treatment that reduces IL-1βmay be an effective adjuvant in the early stage of OM in children (45, 46). IL-2 IL-2 is a 15.5 kDa glycoprotein synthesized principally by activated T cells, although activated B cells may also have the ability to produce small amounts of IL-2 (47). The gene of IL-2 is located on human chromosome 4q26. It induces the proliferation and differentiation of T-cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Upon release, IL-2 is bound by T-cells that have been primed by exposure to their distinctive antigens. Helper T-cells Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators stimulated by IL-2 secrete cytokines to stimulate other lymphocytes. Cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells stimulated by IL2 also proliferate and secrete cytokines, IFN-γ, granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and TNF-α which preferentially activate monocytes and macrophages. IL-2 reaches peak levels early in the inflammatory cascade, and levels quickly drop before there is any clinical evidence of inflammation. IL-2 is a key factor in determining the TH1 response of Tcells to promote a strong cell-mediated response. TH1 cells are responsible for orchestrating cellular immunity, while TH2 cells (stimulated by IL-4) provide signaling for humoral immunity. However, IL-2 was not detected in MEE of AOM patients by ELISA nor was it found in an experimental rat model of AOM induced by inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 and nontypable H. influenzae by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (44, 48). On the contrary, IL-2 was detected in the MEE of the chronic OME patients by ELISA (45, 49). It is believed that the inflammatory up-regulation of IL-2 is balanced by the down-regulatory effects of IL-10. Smirnova et al. (50) reported that an imbalance in the production of these cytokines induces switching to the chronic stage. Excessive IL-2 production can cause humoral inflammatory processes and/or chronic cell-mediated processes whereas IL-2 deficiency promotes persistence of OME, which can result in chronic OME. From this, it may be deduced that the ongoing chronic inflammatory state associated with chronic OME may contribute different cell types, and thus different cytokines, than those with AOM. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) TNF is a pair of cytokines originally called cachectin (TNF-α ) and lymphotoxin (TNF-β ). TNF-αis a polypeptide produced mainly by stimulated macrophages but made by wide variety of cells including fibroblasts, T cells and B cells (51). TNF-βis produced predominantly by lymphocytes and its active form is a 25 kDa glycosylated polypeptide (52). These two forms of TNF are 30% identical at the amino acid level (53). Endothelial cells and epithelial cells all have the capacity to produce TNF. TNF induces the acute phase of the inflammatory response and release of other cytokines. TNF activates polymorphonuclear leukocytes, promotes fibroblast proliferation, inhibits vascular endothelial and B-lymphocyte proliferation, and stimulates cartilage and bone resorption (54). Thus, TNF has many of the same functions as IL-1. In fact, IL-1βand TNF-αinduce each other’s production and have a synergistic effect in vivo (55-57). TNF stimulates arachidonic acid metabolism, leading to the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that are important in the pathogenesis of OM (58, 59). TNF-αis a strong inducer of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and endothelial adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (60-63). TNF-αis chemotactic to neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes (17). TNF-αwas detected in human MEE and it is now apparent that 121 TNF-αis one of the most significant inflammatory mediators in OM (64). Animal models of OM induced by S. pneumoniae and LPS have all demonstrated elevated levels of TNF-αin the early stage of OM. Ball et al. (65) indicated that TNF is a significant mediator of LPS-induced MEE in a rat model. Higher expression of TNF- αin human OM confers higher risks of subsequent episodes of OM, longer courses of OM, and chronicity of OM (6668). The results of these studies suggest a potential therapeutic role with the clinical application of TNF inhibitors, such as TNF binding protein or inhibitor TNF soluble receptor, to control the symptoms of AOM or to prevent chronicity and recurrence of OM (65, 66). IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and GM-CSF IL-4, a 20 kDa glycosylated polypeptide, is produced mainly by CD4+ T cells, but also by mast cells and basophils. It functions primarily as a growth factor for B cells and some types of T cells (14). IL-4 supports the proliferation of activated T cells and drives their differentiation to TH2 cells. These T cells support the production of antibodies in a humoral immune response. IL-4 stimulates B-cells to increase IgG and IgE isotypes (21). There are also anti-inflammatory effects that are stimulated by IL-4. It controls numerous molecular processes which cause deactivation of inflammatory macrophages, suppression of inflammation, downregulation of the production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α , IL-1, and IL-8 (50). Although Melhus et al. (48) reported that they could not detect mRNA of IL-4 in the animal AOM model induced by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, Jang and Kim (49) could detect IL-4 in the MEE of chronic OME patients and suggested that elevation of TH2 cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-6, might be a contributing factor in the persistence of OME with allergy. In addition, IgG production shows increases in relation to IL-4 prevalence in AOM in systemically immunized mice due to IL-4 having the effect of inducing B-cell differentiation into IgG-secreting plasma cells (69). It is thought that this is the pathway leading to inflammation in patients with allergic disorders causing OM. Smirnova et al. (50) reported that switching from acute to chronic inflammation can be induced by IL-4 due to its ability to up-regulate mannose receptor expression on activated macrophages. Activated macrophage fusion and giant multinucleate cell formation are promoted by the mannose receptor and create the cellular background for the onset of chronic inflammation. IL-5 is produced by T lymphocytes as a glycoprotein with a Mr of 40-45 and is also involved in the TH2 pathway of inflammation (70). IL-5 functions to induce differentiation of eosinophils and augments proliferation of activated B-cells (14). IL-5 specifically acts on B-cells to stimulate and maintain IgA production (71). In chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) in systemically immunized mice, IL-5 positive cells were more numerous than IL-4 cells (69). This finding is consistent with the finding of increased local IgA production seen during chronic otitis media 122 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 caused by allergy. Recent findings by Iino et al. suggest that IL-5 may play a key role in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic otitis media (EOM), a form of infection often associated with bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. EOM is commonly seen in adults in contrast to AOM and OME which are more often diagnosed in children. The role of IL-5 in EOM can be linked to its chemotactic effect on eosinophils. EOM is characterized by having a markedly viscous or gelatinous effusion with a high eosinophil count and middle ear mucous membranes that are thickened with numerous eosinophils. The eosinophilic infiltration is thought to be due to locally produced IL-5. Iino et al. (72) showed that higher concentrations of IL-5 appeared in EOM middle ear effusions than in those of OME patients. This finding is further evidence of the role IL-5 has in EOM and OME patients. IL-13 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of OME. This inflammatory cytokine was found in 25.9% (7/27) of effusions in a study by Smirnova et al. (73) It was also found that both IL-4 and IL-13 had a significant positive correlation with the concentration of mucin in MEEs. It has been shown in an allergic airway inflammation model that suppress both IL-4 and IL-13 may be necessary to reduce mucus production and allergic inflammation (74). More research is needed to understand the functions of how IL-13 works in conjunction with IL-4 as a proinflammatory cytokine during OM. GM-CSF has also been found to play a role in OM. GM-CSF promotes the activation and prolonged existence of eosinophils. Together with IL-5, it is possible that up-regulation of GM-CSF can cause eosinophil-mediated inflammation. In contrast, GM-CSF may also prove to be a down-regulator of allergic inflammation due to its ability to induce apoptosis in eosinophils (75). Further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of GM-CSF in the middle ear. IL-6 IL-6 is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 25 kDa. IL-6 is produced by many cells, including helper T-cells, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It stimulates B cells to differentiate and is often upregulated following infection (76). Its main function is regulation of immune response, acute phase reaction, and hematopoiesis (77). IL-6 has been shown to play a key role in the acute phase reaction, including the induction of C-reactive protein (78). C-reactive protein is commonly used as a marker of bacterial infection. However, its use as a screening test for bacterial AOM is limited by its limited sensitivity and negative predictive value (79). IL-6 seems to play an important role in the cytokine network of OM. The concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-αin MEE from children were highly correlated with each other (80). Kerschner et al. (81) also discovered a significant correlation between MEE IL-6 concentrations and degree of hearing loss. In cultured middle ear epithelial cells, mucin secretion is upregulated by IL-6 in a dose and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, in a study of children with AOM, serum samples from the AOM patients infected with S. pneumoniae contained significantly higher levels of IL-6 than those infected with other bacteria or no bacteria (82). It appears that S. pneumoniae stimulates IL-6 production more than other types of bacteria. On the contrary, IL-6 was not detected in the guinea pig OM model induced by nonviable H. influen′ zae (41). Fogle-Ansson et al. (83) found that animals inoculated with gram-negative bacteria mediated a faster IL-6 response than animals inoculated with gram-positive bacteria. They also found that it was possible to determine whether an infection was grampositive or negative by analyzing the concentrations of IL-6. In a rat model, IL-6 mRNA increased in AOM induced by both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (48). Additionally, it was found that the shorter the course of OM, the higher the concentration of IL-6 in MEE (67). In conclusion, expression of IL-6 is thought to be a potential candidate for the detection of the severity or chronicity of AOM. Further proof of this can be seen in the recent findings linking IL-6 to mucin upregulation. However, more reports demonstrating direct correlation between IL-6 and upregulation of mucin secretion are necessary to show transition to chronicity of OM. IL-10 IL-10, known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is considered an immunosuppressive regulator of acute inflammation. It is produced by monocytes, CD4+ T cells, activated CD8+ T cells, and activated B cells following induction by bacterial products such as LPS. It is produced relatively late when compared to other cytokines, but there is evidence that IL-10 expression is upregulated shortly after or even simultaneously with pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-10 is the principal TH2-type cytokine that upregulates humoral immune responses and attenuates cell-mediated immune reactions. If IL-10 is present for an extended period in the inflammation zone it can induce the amplification of chronic humoral inflammatory processes. Through this humoral inflammatory amplication IL-10 is thought to contribute to the switching of the infection into the chronic stage. A deficiency of IL-10 has also been seen to result in the chronic condition because the inflammatory actions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 are not downregulated (50). IL-10, being the key anti-inflammatory cytokine, inhibits monocytes/macrophages and the production of TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 (84). In addition, the production of oxygen radicals and proteases from activated neutrophils is directly suppressed. IL-10 was detected in the MEE of an experimental OM model by ELISA (85), and middle ear mucosal upregulation of its mRNA expression was also reported in the early and in the late stage of experimentally induced OM (48, 85). It is thought that IL-10 contributes to the eradication of middle ear inflammation and provides a negative feedback mechanism related to TNF-αin OM. It is also believed that production of IL-10 must be balanced Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators relative to production of IL-2. These cytokines need to be proportional in the middle ear in order to cancel the effects of the other. IL-10 is responsible for the down-regulation of acute inflammatory events while IL-2 leads to the up-regulation of cellular and molecular inflammation events (50). Transforming growth factor (TGF) TGF is divided into two classes of polypeptide growth factors. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF- α) and beta (TGF-β) are not structurally or genetically related to one another and they act through different receptor mechanisms. TGF-βis known to exist in at least five subtypes: TGF-β 1 through TGF-β 5. TGF-β is part of a supergene family of low molecular weight cytokines that play a crucial role in the initiation and maturation of inflammatory processes including recruitment, activation, and proliferation of inflammatory cells (86). TGF-βhas been found to stimulate extracellular matrix formation (fibronectin, collagen, and proteoglycans), protease inhibitor, and fibroblast chemotaxis. TGF-βis also believed to have an effect on fibroblast proliferation (87). The overproduction of TGF-βin the middle ear can elicit responses that may lead to chronic OME. Fibroblast accumulation and activation, IgA+ B cell secretion, and monocyte accumulation and activation are the result of TGF-βoverproduction. In the presence of cytokines such as IL-10, IL-4, and GMCSF, these effects can cause cell-mediated inflammation, humoral inflammation, and progressive fibrosis which leads to the chronic condition of OME (50). In a study by Cooter et al. (86), it was found that detectable amounts of TGF-β 1 and TGF-β 2 occurred in 100% and 98% of middle ear effusions, respectively. The major role of TGF-βoccurs in the later stages of inflammation and its higher levels indicate that it participates in the repair of damaged tissue in the middle ear (50). IL-12 IL-12, a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine, is produced by phagocytic cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, and Langerhans cells. When stimulated by bacteria or bacterial toxins such as LPS, these cells release large amounts of IL-12. This effect is further enhanced in the presence of interferon-γ(IFN-γ ). IL-12 is a potent inducer of IFN-γproduction by T and NK cells. IL-12induced IFN-γexerts positive feedback in inflammation by enhancing IL-12 production. Wang et al. (88) found that IL-2 upregulates the expression of IL-12 and increases the response of NK to IL-12. IL-12 is the major cytokine responsible for the differ. The enhancentiation of TH1 cells, which are producers of IFN-γ ing effect of IFN-γon IL-12 production may represent a mechanism by which TH1 responses are maintained. IFN-γactivates macrophages and NK cells, and potentiates the proliferation of activated T cells. IL-12 is important in early immunity because it stimulates innate resistance and generates a TH1-type immune response. It is believed to form a link between innate and adaptive immunity. There have been no reports about the expres- 123 sion of IL-12 in OM until now. It is thought that the function of IL-12 in the middle ear is limited. Chemokines Chemokines are a family of structurally similar small proteins, whose major role is to stimulate leukocyte chemotaxis (89). In this way, they are thought to regulate the immune response. There are 2 families of chemokines, α -chemokine (CXC) and β -chemokine (CC) chemokines. CXC chemokines include IL-8 and are chemotactic to neutrophils. CC chemokines are chemotactic to monocytes and lymphocytes. IL-8 IL-8 comes from monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes (90). It is produced on stimulation with IL-1β , TNF-α , IL-13, LPS, Concanavalin A, or viruses from the previously listed cells (5, 17, 91, 92). Since IL-8 expression can be controlled by the primary cytokines, IL-1βand TNF-α , it is considered to be a secondary cytokine in middle ear inflammation (73). IL-8 is a selective chemotaxic agent for neutrophils (93, 94). IL-8 induces neutrophil chemotaxis, activation and degranulation, surface expression of adhesion molecules, respiratory burst, and cytosolic calcium increase (93). IL-8 increases adhesion molecules for attachment and migration of neutrophils during acute inflammatory response (95). Since IL-8 is capable of inducing lysosomal enzyme release, IL-8 may play a key role in causing tissue damage, which leads to the prolongation of middle ear inflammation (96, 97). When directly injected into the middle ears of healthy mice, IL-8 causes more inflammatory changes than when S. pneumoniae is injected into mouse middle ears (98). IL-8 secretion is enhanced in both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae provoked cases of OM (73). Several authors detected IL-8 in human MEE. Transcripts of IL-8 were detected in 75% of both pediatric and adults MEEs (97). The mean level of IL-8 in MEE from children was higher than that of adults (99). The peak level of TNF-αand IL-1βin the MEE in a guinea pig OM model preceded the peak in IL-8 (41). This delay of the IL-8 peak level suggests that IL-8 is produced by inflammatory cells which accumulated via the influence of TNF-α and IL-1β . Levels of IL-8 were closely correlated with the presence of bacteria and neutrophils in the MEE of OM. With initiation of antibiotic therapy, levels of IL-8 were reported to fall as bacteria were eradicated from the middle ear (100). IL-8 has also been shown to be predictive of the number of neutrophils in MEE (100-103). Smirnova et al. (104) assessed the effects of IL-8 and other proinflammatory cyokines on goblet cells using human goblet cell line HT29- MTX which secretes two OME-related mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B. They proposed that goblet cells are target cells for IL-8, TNF-α , and IL-1βand that IL-8 stimulates prolonged mucin secretion from goblet cells and may be involved in the maintenance of OM in the the chronic stage. Additionally, recurrence 124 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 of AOM within 1 month was associated with high IL-8 levels in the initial middle ear fluid (101). The results of these studies suggest the possibility of using the IL-8 level as a prognostic factor or parameter of clinical outcomes. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) MCP-1 is expressed by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells stimulated by either IL-1 or TNF (18). MCP-1 is chemotactic for both monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro (105, 106). Recently, MCP-1 has been shown to be chemotactic for monocytes and lymphocytes in vivo (107). MCP-1 expression alone does not activate these cells, but leads to enhanced inflammatory response upon treatment with other stimuli such as LPS (107). MCP-1 increases the adhesiveness of human monocytes toward endothelial cells by stimulating an increase in the surface expression and activation of adhesion molecules (108, 109). MCP-1 has a central position in monocyte trafficking and activation and has been implicated in diseases characterized by monocyte-rich infiltrates, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (110). MCP-1 is important in recruiting monocytes in chronic inflammation (17). MCP-1 has been detected in higher levels in MEEs with combined bacterial and viral infections (111). MCP-1 can be seen to upregulate the activation of inflammatory cells in the presence of LPS. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1 ) MIP-l αis released by monocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, B cells, and T cells. It has potent monocyte and lymphocyte chemoattractant properties and induces release of histamine from basophils and mast cells (112, 113). MIP-1αwas detected 9 of 11 cases of MEE (111). It is likely that MIP-1 plays an important role in the microenvironment of the middle ear, especially with respect to basophil function (111). This mediator has the potential to be important in acute and chronic OM as it is released by monocytes and induces histamine release and monocyte chemotaxis. RANTES Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) is a CC chemokine that is chemotactic to monocytes and lymphocytes. RANTES was reported to be detectable in 94 (82%) of 114 effusions. The concentration of RANTES was positively correlated with the endotoxin content (114). In vitro, RANTES was expressed in middle ear epithelium in response to proinflammatory stimuli (TNF-α ) in a dose dependent manner. Schousboe et al. (114) speculated that the expression of RANTES might explain the recruitment of monocytes in OME, possibly as a result of TNF-α -mediated endotoxin stimulation. On the other hand, Jang and Kim (115) demonstrated that RANTES and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) in MEE of OME with allergy were significantly correlated and significantly higher than controls. Their results suggest the allergic role of chemokines in the pathogenesis of OME. Mast cells Mast cells are the most numerous resident leukocytes in the middle ear. When activated, mast cells release preformed mediators, histamine and tryptase, and de novo synthesized mediators, leukotrienes and prostaglandins. Mast cells also release various cytokines including tumor necrosis factor and IL-1. During OM the mast cell population increases dramatically and mast cells will use Toll-like receptors and CD48 to directly interact with bacterial products. Ebmeyer et al. (116) showed that mast cells may be a major contributor to the early inflammatory response and may provide a link between infection and allergy in the generation of OM. Histamine Histamine causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and edema of middle ear mucosa (117-119). Histamine is released by mast cells present in the middle ear upon activation by either complement or binding of antigen to IgE antibodies which stud the exterior surface of mast cells (120-122). Through its vasodilatory effects, histamine can cause mucociliary and eustachian tube dysfunction (123-126). Histamine levels and mast cell numbers were higher in adenoids of children with serous OM than in children with normal ears, suggesting a possible mechanism of eustachian tube obstruction secondary to histamine released from the adenoids (127, 128). In addition, middle ear mast cells were increased twofold in patients with chronic middle ear disease (129). Histamine levels were found to be higher in mucoid effusions than seroustype effusions (121, 129). Thus, histamine appears to be an important mediator influencing both acute and chronic OME. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Another factor thought to be responsible for increased vascular permeability is VEGF. It is extremely potent, estimated to be 50,000 times as potent as histamine (130). Platelet-activating factor is 1,000-fold more potent than histamine, which may mean that the permeability effect of VEGF is approximately 50 times greater than PAF. Kim et al. (131) found that severe inflammatory cellular infiltration, subepithelial edema, and vascular dilatation occurred in Sprague Dawley rats that were exposed to 0.1 μg and 1.0 μg of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor. It is thought that perhaps VEGF is primarily responsible for increased vascular permeability and that it is expressed in the presence of histamine (132). Bradykinin/kallikrein-kinin system The plasma kinin-forming system consists of three plasma proteins that interact in a complex manner when bound to negatively charged surfaces. These factors are factor XII (Hageman factor), prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK). Factor XII, once converted to factor XIIa, converts plasma prekallikrein Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators to kallikrein. Kallikrein enzymatically cleaves HMWK to liberate bradykinin. In serous OME, bradykinin enhances the vascular permeability in the middle ear mucosa, causing plasma to leak into the middle ear cleft (133). This plasma leakage characterizes serous effusions (134). Active plasma leakage into the middle ear occurs during the early phase of inflammation (133). The degree of plasma leakage is low in mucoid effusions and varied in serous effusions (133). Decreased plasma leakage into the middle ear in mucoid effusions may be explained by the consumption of the kallikrein system (134). Thus, bradykinin is an acute phase mediator, induced by the kallikrein-kinin system, which enhances vascular permeability in the middle ear leading to MEEs. Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) PAF is a membrane phospholipid metabolite released through the remodeling pathway upon stimulation (135). PAF, IL-1, and TNF can induce each other’s release and also their own generation in self-generating positive feedback cycles (35). PAF is released from human neutrophils, platelets, eosinophils, macrophages, mast cells, and vascular endothelial cells. PAF synthesis is stimulated by PAF, LTB4, LTC4, and LTD4 (136, 137). Its activities include stimulation of arachidonic acid release and metabolism, increasing vascular permeability, and activation of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages (138, 139). PAF induces neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells (137). In addition, PAF appears to play a major role in the production of MEE by increasing vascular permeability, stimulating epithelial secretory activity, and reducing the mucociliary activity of the middle ear causing eustachian tube dysfunction (140). By stimulating mucous glycoprotein release, PAF appears to be a mediator in the hypersecretion of mucus in the middle ear cavity and eustachian tube (141). PAF has been shown to impair mucociliary clearance function in a dose dependent manner (142). The disruption of the mucociliary clearance function may be partly responsible for chronic MEE. Levels of PAF in samples of human MEE have been reported to be in the range of 5.5 μg/mL in purulent otitis media, 7.6 μg/mL in mucoid otitis media, and 31.5 μg/mL in serous otitis media (143). Arachidonic acid metabolites: prostaglandins and leukotrienes Products derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), also called eicosanoids, affect a variety of biologic processes, including inflammation and platelet function (Table 2). AA is derived from cell membrane phospholipids of certain cells in response to some stimulus which activates phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Possible stimuli are many and include antigen-antibody complexes, oxygen free radicals, bradykinin, and thrombin. Leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs) are enzymatically formed from AA by lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase respectively. Metabolites of AA have been identified in human MEE as well as in experimentally induced MEE in animals (58, 143, 144). Indomethacin or ibuprofen, an inhibitor of prostaglandin-forming cyclooxygenase, has 125 Table 2. Inflammatory actions of eicosanoids Action Vasoconstriction Vasodilation Increased vascular permeability Chemotaxis Metabolite TXA2, Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4 PGI2, PGE1, PGE2, PGD2 Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4 Leukotriene B4, HETE HETE: 12-hydroxy 5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid. been reported to be effective in reducing the accumulation of MEE or mucosal thickness in the animal OM model (145, 146). However, LTs seem to be more pro-inflammatory than PGs in otitis media, according to previous animal studies (58, 144). AA metabolites can affect the production of cytokines, and cytokines can regulate the production of AA metabolites. PLA2 activating protein stimulates PLA2 enzymes to break down arachidonic acid. The synthesis of PLA2 activating protein is induced in endothelial cells by IL-1, TNF, LTD4, and bradykinin (147, 148). Challenging the middle ear-eustachian tube (ME-ET) system with eicosanoids PGE1 and PGE2 resulted in increases in permeability and a vasodilation-edema. LTC4, LTD4, and PGE2 resulted in decreased ET patency and LTC4 slowed ME-ET clearance, suggesting that LT induces OME partly by impairing mucociliary transport of eustachian tube mucosa (117, 124, 149). LTB4 is primarily synthesized by granulocytes and is chemotactic for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes (150). A study of experimental pneumococcal OM in chinchillas has suggested that arachidonic acid products, including LTs, in the middle ear are derived from inflammatory cells, since these products appeared after influx of inflammatory cells into the area (59). In animal models of OM, concentrations of LTB4, as well as other LTs, have been shown to correlate well with the degree of inflammation in the middle ear (146). LTB4 is higher in acute OM than chronic OM, suggesting it is related to the acute stage of middle ear disease (101). LTC4 was reported to be the most persistent eicosanoid in the infected chinchilla middle ear (151). Tada et al. (152) demonstrated that LTD4 can induce OME by a single inoculation and OME could last over 14 days, as LTD4 stimulated the release of proinflammatory cytokines. They also reported that oral administration of a specific LT antagonist, pranlukast, alleviated the experimental OME (152). Other LT-inhibitors, such as montelukast sodium and SCH/37224, have been shown to have some efficacy in prevention or treatment of OME experimentally or clinically (141, 153). Free radical production in OM Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical generated by NO synthase in many cells and tissues including neurons, macrophages, neutrophils, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, lungs, and respiratory tract epithelial cells, including middle ear epithelial cells (154). In OM, it is largely responsible for vasodilation, increased vascular 126 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 permeability, and production of mucoid effusions (155). NO synthesized by activated inflammatory cells regulates the functions of the other cells involved in the inflammatory process. Thus, NO may be considered a secondary mediator of inflammation produced by the middle ear epithelium in response to primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1βand TNF-α(156). Watanabe et al. (157) demonstrated that both in vivo and in vitro application of these cytokines resulted in increased iNOS in the middle ear epithelial cells of rats. Studies have demonstrated that inhibition of intracellular NO production blocks the hypersecretion of mucin in guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells stimulated by reactive oxygen species, TNF-α , PAF, and histamine (158-160). In rat middle ears injected with lipopolysaccharide, inhibition of intracellular NO release blocked mucin release (155). NO is also a likely mediator of osteoclastic resorption in COM (161). Recent work by Jeon et al. (162) suggests that NO may be a crucial signaling molecule that plays a role in nearly every step of OM pathophysiology. It is also suggested that the damaging effects of NO might be a result of its metabolite reactive nitrogen species which are products of the NO and reactive oxygen species reaction. In addition to NO, various other oxygen free radicals can directly damage middle ear epithelium. Both S. pneumoniae and neutrophils are known to produce highly reactive oxygen free radicals which have been shown to directly damage middle ear mucosa in OM (163). Acute and chronic inflammatory mediators IL-1 and TNF-αare early-response cytokines, although IL-1 appears to be a more potent activator than TNF (17). IL-1βconcentrations were higher in purulent middle ear fluids than in serous or mucoid MEE (1, 164), and significantly higher concentrations were also found in patients with culture-positive than in those with culturenegative AOM (1, 43, 164). On the other hand, high concentrations of TNF-αin MEE were reported to be associated with a history of multiple placements of tympanostomy tubes (80). Cultured monocytes, which had differentiated to macrophages, had a markedly reduced LPS inducible IL-1, but not TNF-αsecretion, suggesting that TNF-αmay be involved in chronic otitis with differentiated macrophages and bacterial endotoxin retained in the middle ear cleft (165). MEE from ears with chronic OME have been assayed for endotoxin and TNF-αwith 40% of ears having retained endotoxin. There was also a statistically significant correlation between both TNF-αand IL-1βwith endotoxin levels (166). More recently, Hebda et al. (85) demonstrated that mucosal mRNAs for IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ , TNF-α , MCP-1, and TGF-β were upregulated through the 16 weeks of follow-up in an experimentally induced OM. Taken together, endotoxin and upregulated TNF-αproduction are considered to be important factors for the persistence or chronicity of OME. LTB4 and IL-8 are produced during acute infection of the middle ear and these PMN-related inflammatory substances may play an important role in delaying recovery or in recurrence of AOM (101). LTB4, LTC4, PGE2, and PAF appear to be important in the acute inflammatory process of OM (58, 144, 167). Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the roles leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and platelet-activating factor play on each other and on the middle ear. Inflammatory cells in acute and chronic OM Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages are the major cell types observed in middle ear effusions (168, 169). Neutrophils are the predominant cells involved in early host response against OM during invasion of bacterial pathogens. Neutrophils have been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of not only acute OM but also chronic OME in children (170). Lysozyme accumulation in MEE preceded significant inflammatory cell influx with lysozyme present at 6 hr and inflammatory cells present after 12 hr in MEE in H. influenzae-induced experimental OM (171). The predominant cell populations in the mucosa and MEEs in COME are mononuclear cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes, with plasma and mast cells also present (172-176). Lysozyme is a product of both PMNs and mononuclear inflammatory cells, with levels higher in purulent otitis media (POM) than in serous OM (177). Inflammatory cells recruited to the ME were able to set up a delayed inflammatory reaction in chronic OM (138). In chronic otitis media with repeated episodes of acute inflammation, neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate with each episode (178). The number of macrophages continued to increase for up to four weeks after eustachian tube obstruction in chinchillas (177). As the inflammatory process enters the chronic phase of OM, there is a continuing shift in the population of infiltrating leukocytes toward increasing numbers of mononuclear cells. Pediatric and adult otitis media Most of the human studies discussed focus on children because adult OM occurs relatively infrequently. There are differences in the inflammatory mediators involved in child and adult OME. Higher levels of lysozyme, a nonspecific defense lysosomal enzyme against bacterial infection, were found in the effusions of children compared to adults (179). The early response cytokines IL-1βand TNF-αwere present in higher percentages of effusions from children than adults (85% of children vs. 12% of adults for IL-1βand 85% of children vs. 8% of adults for TNF-α ), suggesting that adult OM is associated with lower expression of the early response cytokines (46). These observed differences in OM between children and adults may be due to adults having more developed immunity to different pathogens. Histopathology of acute and chronic OM Acute inflammatory changes include vascular dilatation, submucosal edema, and infiltration of phagocytic cells into the middle ear. After the tissue damage has subsided, submucosal fibrosis, calcification, ossification, and hypertrophy of squamous epithelia of the tympanic membrane develops (178). Serous otitis media induced by eustachian tube obstruction in an animal model Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators revealed histopathological findings characterized by hyperplasia of epithelium and edema of the subepithelial space resulting from increased vascular permeabiltiy. POM induced by inoculation of pneumococci into the middle ear showed histopathological changes characterized by metaplasia of the epithelial lining and goblet cells, widening of the subepithelial space with capillary dilatation and neutrophilic infiltration, and the appearance of lymphocytes and plasma cells (180). Middle ear mucosal changes in patients with persistent OME show thickening of the pseudostratified epithelium with an increase in goblet cell density and pronounced basal cell hyperplasia (181). Goblet cell proliferation is commonly seen after toxic influence on respiratory epithelium (182). Under abnormal conditions, the flat nonciliated epithelium of the middle ear was transformed into pseudostratified ciliary epithelium with an increase in goblet cells (183). A study of 123 temporal bones with chronic OM showed fibrous thickening of the mucoperiosteum and granulation tissue principally, but subepithelial glandular formation was also a common finding (184). Influenza virus inoculated into the nose causes an increase in the frequency of goblet cells in the nasopharyngeal portion of the eustachian tube (185). Increased frequency of goblet cells was also induced by pneumococcal antigens in the bulla of guinea pigs (186). It has also been observed that the ratio of albumin to immunoglobulin can shed light on the stage of infection and further deduce the pathomechanics of infection (187). Many of these changes are caused, in part, by inflammatory mediators in the middle ear. Bacterial endotoxin and LPS A percentage of chronic OME may be related to retained bacterial antigens which produce chronic local stimulation of the immune system contributing to persistence of ME inflammation and effusion (188). Endotoxin is an integral component of the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria and consists of a complex of LPS and protein. The LPS is composed of a lipid portion (lipid A) linked by 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) to a heterogenous sugar polymer referred to as O-antigens (189). The gramnegative OM pathogens, nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis, however, do not have O-specific polysaccharide antigens. Endotoxin from these bacteria is therefore referred to as being composed of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and protein (190). Middle ear effusions containing 100 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL of LPS and 25 to 100 ng/mL of LPS stimulated TNF-αproduction by cultured human monocytes (191). Therefore, monocytes and macrophages might be expected to be activated to produce inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response (192). LPS has been shown to induce production of IL-l β, IL-6, and TNF-αand significant levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-αhave been found in MEEs (45, 193, 194). LPS is a potent stimulus for the production of macrophage-derived TNF and IL-1 (195). Non-typeable H. influenzae LOS induced 127 increases in cultured human middle ear epithelial (HMEE) cell expression of IL-1β, TNF- α, MIP-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and MCP-1 mRNA expression (196). Barrett et al. (197) demonstrated that LPS activated ICAM-1 receptors, IL-8, and NF-κ B, a ubiquitous transcription factor complexed to its inhibitor within the cytoplasm in in vitro studies using rabbit middle ear epithelial cells. Endotoxin is reported to be present in a high percentage of middle ear effusions and even in nonpurulent MEEs (198-200). In an experiment examining the endotoxin levels in mucoid, serous, adult, and acute MEEs, endotoxin was found in 76.8% of the mucoid effusions, 55.6% of the serous effusions, 47.8% of effusions from adult patients, and 100% of acute effusions (201). H. influenzae type b endotoxin and the outer cell wall of nontypable H. influenzae induced OM in guinea pigs (202, 203). Killed S. pneumoniae produced an inflammatory reaction consisting of epithelial metaplasia, increasing edema, and a PMN infiltrate in MEEs in a chinchilla model (204). H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae antigen was present in 26% and 21% of human effusion samples, respectively (205). Inoculating a higher concentration of LPS into the middle ear caused the development of a longer-term OME in the guinea pig (206). In a mouse model it was shown that the subepithelial space of middle ear mucosa was severely thickened with the infiltration of a large number of mononuclear cells induced by endotoxin (207). Bacterial endotoxin delayed mucociliary transport in the chinchilla ME, suggesting that bacterial components trapped in ME may sustain the inflammation and contribute to the chronicity of the MEE (208). MEE itself induces inflammatory reactions in the ME cavity in animals (120). Intratympanic inoculation of human MEEs induced OME in guinea pigs and reduced ciliary activity (209). Maeda et al. (207) found that endotoxin-induced OM resulted in mucoid MEEs and that eustachian tube dysfunction is essential to a serous MEE. Addition of endotoxin in vivo caused an increase in mucosal cell proliferation and the formation of epithelial effusion products (210, 211). In view of the high incidence of endotoxin in MEE, a number of studies have focused on the cochlear effects of endotoxin to determine whether endotoxin can induce pathological changes, including hearing loss, after direct injection of the inner ear or subsequent to the injection of the ME with endotoxin from various sources (190, 212-214). When 1 mg/mL of endotoxin was applied onto the round window membrane in normal guinea pigs, elevation of auditory brain stem response (ABR) thresholds were reported (213). Demaria (215) showed that endotoxin shed by NTHi during experimental OM penetrates the inner ear and binds to both tissue components and inflammatory cells in both the middle and inner ear. Therefore, it is probable that endotoxin is a significant factor that can induce sensorineural hearing loss as a sequela of OM. Transcription factor, toll-like receptor and cytokines Among a variety of transcription regulators, NF-κ B has been shown 128 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 to play a critical role in regulating the expression of large numbers of genes including cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators involved in inflammatory responses (216). NF-κ B is a dimeric transcription factor that is composed of p50 (NF-κ B1) and p65 (RelA) subunits (216). NF-κ B is rapidly activated by a large spectrum of chemically diverse agents and cellular stress conditions including bacterial LPS, microbial and viral pathogens, cytokines and growth factors (197, 217, 218). In resting cells, NF-κ B is retained in the cytoplasm but enters the nucleus in response to various stimuli including bacterial infections. Activation of NF-κ B is κ κ controlled by an inhibitory subunit, I B, which retains NF- B in the cytoplasm. The activation of NF-κ B by a NF-κ B translocationdependent pathway requires sequential phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of Iκ B as well as consequent exposure of a nuclear localization signal on the NF-κ B molecule. Multiple kinases have been shown to phosphorylate Iκ B at specific aminoterminal serine residues (219, 220). Phosphorylation of Iκ B by Iκ B kinase (IKK) pathways leads to the nuclear translocation of NF-κ B which, in turn, activates expression of target genes in the nucleus. NTHi, a well-known pathogen of otitis media, strongly activates NF-κ B in a cultured human middle ear epithlelial cell line (HMEEC-1) via NF-κ B translocation-dependent and independent pathways. The NF-κ B translocation-independent pathway involves activation of the MKK3/6-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (221). It has also been shown that NF-κ B is synergistically induced by the combination of TNF-α and NTHi (222). In the host innate immune system, the surface epithelial cells recognize the invading bacteria by directly interacting with pathogen-associated molecular patterns on a variety of bacteria via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on the host (223). Of these, TLR2 has been well studied by researchers. TLR2 can respond to a variety of Gram-positive products, including peptidoglycan, lipoprotein, lipoteichoic acid, and lipoarabinomannan (224). TLR2 also plays an important role in the NTHi-induced NF-κ B activation (221). Collectively, when NTHi binds TLR2, several key inflammatory mediators including IL-1β , IL-8, and TNF-αare upregulated by the activation of NF-κ B (221). On the other hand, the promoter regions of many of the TNF-α-regulated genes contain DNA binding sites for NF-κ B. TNF-αalso contributes to the activation of NF-κ B. The interaction of TNF-αwith its receptor has been shown to activate several signaling pathways, including a MAPK/extracellular signalregulated kinase kinase 1 (MEKK-1)-dependent MAPK signaling pathway and a NF-κ B-inducing kinase (NIK)-IKK-Iκ B αpathway (225). Watanabe et al. (222) showed that NTHi and TNF-α, when present together, synergistically induce NF-κ B activation via two distinct pathways: a NF-κ B translocation-dependent and an independent pathway in epithelial cell lines including HMEEC-1. Mucous secretion and mucoid otitis media (MOM) MOM is characterized by viscous fluid, high in mucin concentra- tion, which accumulates in the ME cavity. Hypersecretion of mucous glycoprotein can be harmful to the mucociliary transport system (227). Mucocilary dysfunction in the tubotympanum plays an important role in the pathophysiology of OME and the rheological properties of MEE also play an important role in the process of recovery from OME (228, 229). Mucin, or mucus glycoprotein, is the major viscous component of MEE (230). There was a positive correlation between the viscoelasticity of MEE and goblet cell densities of middle ear mucosa (231). Mucociliary clearance is dependent on the rheological properties or viscoelasticity of MEE (232, 233). Mucociliary transport rates reduce when the viscosity of effusion is excessively high or low (233). Mucociliary dysfunction was suggested in the middle ears of children with OME caused by a decrease in the number of ciliated cells, hyperplasia of goblet cells, and an abnormal interaction of cilia and mucus that would fail to transport mucus, possibly causing mucus accumulation in the ME cavity (234). Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-αand IL-8, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MOM. Mucoid effusions from human MEE samples contained higher levels of IL-8 than serous effusions (235, 236). TNF-αenhances PLA2 expression (237). PLA2, exogenously administrated, increased mucous glycoprotein secretion in cultured chinchilla middle ear epithelial cells (238). This suggests that PLA2 increases the release of arachidonic acid, since arachidonic acid metabolites are known to be involved in mucous glycoprotein production and secretion (159, 239, 240). TNF-αmarkedly increased the steady-state level of MUC2 mucin mRNA in ME epithelial cells of rats in a dose- and time-dependent manner (237). Inoculation of TNF-αinto the ME cavity followed by ET obstruction stimulated mucous cell metaplasia hyperplasia in the ME cleft, accompanied by abundant mucin or mucin-like glycoprotein in the MEE (241). Concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites were higher in MOM than in serous OM (242). TNF-αwas reported to stimulate secretion of mucin by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells via mechanisms involving activation of NO synthase (NOS) and generation of NO (243). Therefore, it is conceivable that NO may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of MOM. PAF also stimulates secretion of mucus glycoprotein mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially metabolites of the lipoxygenase pathway via a PAF-receptor dependent mechanism (244), and inhibits mucociliary clearance of the eustachian tube (245). The expression of soluble adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), is known to be upregulated at the cell surface in inflammatory disease. The levels of soluble ICAM-1 in mucoid effusions were reported to be significantly higher than those in serous effusions (246). More recently, Maeda et al. (207) demonstrated that additional administration of endotoxin was needed to produce mucoid MEE after the induction of serous MEE by ET blockage. Collectively, mucoid otitis media appears to be a more inflammatory and chronic form of OM than serous OM. Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators 129 NTHi utilize the TGF-β -Smad signaling pathway together with the TLR2-MyD88-TAK1-NIK-IKKβ /γ -Iκ Bαpathway to mediate κ NF- B-dependent MUC2 mucin transcription in the epithelial cell lines including in the human middle ear epithelial cell line HMEEC-1 (247). Jono et al. (248) also showed that NTHi strongly induced up-regulation of MUC5AC mucin via activation of the Toll-like receptor 2-MyD88-dependent p38 pathway in the epithelial cell lines including HMEEC-1. Activation of TGF-β -Smad signaling, however, led to down- regulation of p38 by including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), thereby acting as a negative regulator for MUC5AC induction (248). The role of cytokines in cholesteatoma pathogenesis Cholesteatomas are characterized by migration of keratinized squamous epithelium positioned in a fibrous stroma into the middle ear and mastoid cavity. This review has focused mainly on the associated inflammatory process seen in chronic otitis media and acquired cholesteatoma. Although the pathophysiology remains to be clearly elucidated, it is presumed to be multifactorial, as many theories have been proposed and investigated (249). Generally, it is thought that cholesteatomas form from a retraction pocket in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane (TM). Predisposing conditions causing TM invagination appear to be chronic eustachian tube dysfunction with negative middle ear pressure, repeated bacterial infections, or chronic otitis media. In many of these cases, this induction of cholesteatoma formation seems to be related to both internal molecular dysregulation and external stimuli in the form of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and/or bacterial toxins. Acquired cholesteatomas almost universally arise in the setting of inflammation and infection. Inflammatory granulation tissue always appears with invading epithelium in active human cholesteatomas (250) and experimental animal cholesteatomas (251). The inflammatory milieu that occurs in the setting of chronic otitis and cholesteatoma has been well delineated. As previously described, a large number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, growth factors, and inflammatory cells have been identified in both chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma (249, 252-255). The pathobiologic reason for the observed increase in proliferation in cholesteatoma tissue is not completely understood. Recent studies indicate a transcription factor, termed inhibitor of differentiation (Id1), is involved in the proliferation of cholesteatoma epithelium via an NF-κ B/cyclin D1 dependent mechanism (6, 187). First, Id1 is upregulated in the rat middle ear mucosa following the infection with penumococcus (39). Second, upregulation of Id1 results in thickening of the middle ear mucosa with epithelial cell metaplasia. This is via the upregulation of cell cycle activity: the NF-κ B/cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk2/4)/E2F/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) signaling (Fig. 2). Phospholipase C-γ 1 is the central molecule that activates the phospho-inositide second messenger signal transduction pathway. It is responsible for transducing the signals from the Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the Id1-induced cellular hyperproliferation and abundant keratin 10 production pathways in keratinocytes. CD1: cyclin D1; Cdks: cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks 4/6); Rb: retinoblastoma; Rb-P: phosphorylated Rb; E2F: a transcription factor that drives the Go/G1-to-S phase transition of cells. tyrosine kinase and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). Increases in signal transduction from EGFRs result in a variety of cellular events including the induction of hyperplasia, growth, proliferative cytokeratin expression, and tumor invasiveness. Immunohistochemical and protein immunoblot studies showed that phospholipase C-γ 1 is over-expressed across the matrix of cholesteatoma (256). In cholesteatoma, EGFR expression is not limited to the basal layer, as it is in normal squamous epithelia. Its expression is increased in the suprabasal strata (257, 258). 75% of cholesteatoma keratinocytes express EGFR as opposed to only 10% of normal and canal keratinocytes (259). Transforming growth factor-α , the ligand for EGFR is also expressed across all layers of the cholesteatoma matrix (258). Although the molecular characteristics that contribute to cholesteatoma growth dysregulation have been qualitatively described, the exact pathobiologic mechanism leading to the observed hyper-proliferative state remains hypothetical. Evidence seems to point to the inability of cholesteatoma cells to abrogate proliferative and migratory signals from local inflammatory cells. Cytokines secreted by these local immune cells may create alterations in internal keratinocyte biochemical pathways that lead to the above-described hyper-proliferative phenotype. Moreover, noxious stimuli in the form of bacterial products and toxins could magnify this response. Ottaviani et al. (260) showed that the perimatrix of cholesteatoma showed a sharp reactivity to the ICAM1 and to the endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM1), both responsible for the homing of inflammatory cells at the epithelial-stromal junction of cholesteatoma. This over-expression of ICAM-1 and ELAM-1 seems to show that keratinocytes in 130 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 cholesteatoma are in an activated state and that their hyperproliferation is mediated through inflammatory and/or autocrine cytokines. To this point, Huang et al. (261) has shown that GMCSF, a protein that is highly expressed by monocytes and fibroblasts within the subepithelial stroma of cholesteatoma, is present at high levels throughout all layers of cholesteatoma. GM-CSF is known to induce in vitro keratinocyte proliferation and protein production. It is theorized that intense infiltration of cholesteatoma by immune cells leads to chronic inflammation via continuous overproduction of certain cytokines. The reasons for failure to control this inflammatory response are not completely understood. It is possible that the microenvironment of the cholesteatoma state, namely granulation tissue, bacterial pathogens, and invasive hyper-proliferating keratinocytes, leads to a perpetual inflammatory milieu. Studies have shown the overall number of mast cells to be highly increased in acquired cholesteatoma (262). Mast cells are responsible for the secretion of a variety of potent cytokines many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. These include IL-1, IL-6, GM-CSF, interferongamma (IFN-γ) and TNF-α. Much like increased mast cell infiltration, acquired cholesteatomas contain increases in the number activated T-cells and macrophages (263). Among the above-mentioned cytokines, TNF-αplays a major role in acquired cholesteatoma biology (264, 265). It appears to be preferentially localized to the connective tissue and epithelium of human cholesteatoma samples when compared to normal ear canal skin. In vitro, it has been shown to induce the proliferation, protein synthesis and terminal differentiation of basal keratinocytes. Although mainly secreted by activated macrophages, mast cells and cholesteatoma keratinocytes may also produce it. It induces osteoclast-mediated bone resorption (266), stimulates fibroblasts to secrete collagenase and prostaglandin E2 that in turn cause local soft tissue destruction (267), and may cause the resorption and inhibition of proteoglycans in cartilage (266-268). Furthermore, the levels of TNF-αin acquired cholesteatoma were correlated to the amount of inflammatory cell infiltration, bony destruction, and severity of infection (269). These facts all suggest that TNF-αplays a pivotal role in cholesteatoma pathogenesis. Similarly, IL-1 was identified in the epidermis of cholesteatoma (270). IL-1 is produced both by cholesteatoma epithelial cells and by the inflammatory cells of the granulation tissue environment (252). Levels of both IL-1αand IL-1βappear to be much more elevated in cholesteatoma than in normal squamous epithelium (271). IL-1 has been implicated in the bony resorption process (272), and has been shown to stimulate the proliferation of keratinocytes (273). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated as crucial agents in the development of bony erosion seen with cholesteatoma. MMPs are important in the physiologic turnover of the cholesteatoma epithelium extracellular matrix. Normally, their activity is tightly controlled, as an increase in their activation would Infection Tissue damage Inflammation/ cell infiltration Hypersecretion of mucins Inflammatory mediators Inner ear damage Lateral wall Blood-Labyrinth barrier Hair cell damage Sensorineural hearing loss Mucociliary dysfunction Stagnation of mucus Bacterial colonization Fig. 3. Pathological effects of inflammatory mediators in otitis media. cause denudement of the extracellular matrix and increased invasiveness by the epithelium. In cholesteatoma, studies have indicated a clear imbalance in the regulation of MMPs, with an overall upregulation of MMP expression and a decrease in MMP inhibitors resulting in degradation of the extracellular matrix. This causes the aggressiveness seen in cholesteatoma with regards to its invasiveness and bony destruction (274, 275). According to Wilmoth et al. (276), MMP2 levels were increased with exposure to LPS or TNF- αin cultured gerbil TMs. This supports a link between inflammatory mediators and the secretion of potentially destructive MMPs in the TM, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Interaction between middle and inner ear Most of the middle ear inflammatory mediators and toxins from the middle ear enter into the inner ear through the round window membrane (277). It has been reported that the passage through the round window membrane (RWM) for small molecules is by passive diffusion and for large molecules by endocytosis (278). The blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) also plays a primary role in the homeostasis of ion concentrations in the endolymph and periymph. Like other barrier systems, tight juctions within the capillaries of the spiral ligament form the morphological site of the BLB and prevent the passage of substances from blood into the fluid in the inner ear. Unlike other barrier systems, however, the BLB seems to be less permeable to several ions (sodium, chloride and calcium) and differentially modulates the passage of larger substances in proportion to molecular weight (Fig. 3) (279). Ion channels, including the delayed rectifier K+ channel, Ca2+dependent K+ channel, Ca2+ voltage-sensitive channel, and receptors such as N-metyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) have been localized to the stria vascularis, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells and are the primary factors responsible for maintaining the electrical potential of the hair cells and the process of auditory transduction (280). More than 75 different ion channels have been identified. Proper regulation of ion channel conductance is mediated by protein phosphorylation. Ion channel disorders such as tinnitus or metabolic Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators disorders are characterized by a leakage in the apical or lateral potassium channel, affecting intracellular calcium levels. CONCLUSIONS Inflammatory mediators play a central role in the pathogenesis of OM and cholesteatoma by initiating and maintaining the inflammatory response to infection and injury. Inflammatory mediators may be one of the reasons that some patients progress from acute to COM and cholesteatoma. It is possible that inflammatory mediators such as histamine and PAF can lead to eustachian tube dysfunction resulting in decreased mucociliary clearance. This could lead to retained bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide, cell walls, and bacterial antigens in the middle ear cleft causing a chronic inflammatory reaction with continual release of cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites resulting in further inflammation and host cell damage. Another possible mechanism is through inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α , interleukin-l, and PAF induction of mucin secretion in the middle ear epithelium. This would cause increased viscosity of the middle ear effusion and may lead to decreased mucociliary clearance and retention of bacterial products causing chronic inflammatory reactions and mediator release. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the roles of the newly discovered chemokines in the pathogenesis of OM and cholesteatoma. More studies are needed on the use of specific blocking agents to inflammatory mediators with the aim of discovering new treatment options for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. The future holds much promise in the field of inflammatory mediator research and through new discoveries the pain and suffering associated with otitis media can be reduced. CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT The authors declare that we have no conflicts in interests. REFERENCES 1. Juhn SK, Garvis WJ, Lees CJ, Le CT, Kim CS. Determining otitis media severity from middle ear fluid analysis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1994 May;163:43-5. .. 2. Kock A, Schwarz T, Kirnbauer R, Urbanski A, Perry P, Ansel JC, et al. Human keratinocytes are a source for tumor necrosis factor alpha: evidence for synthesis and release upon stimulation with endotoxin or ultraviolet light. J Exp Med. 1990 Dec 1;172(6):1609-14. 3. Kupper TS. The activated keratinocyte: a model for inducible cytokine production by non-bone marrow-derived cells in cutaneous inflammatory and immune responses. J Invest Dermatol. 1990 Jun;94(6 Suppl): 146S-150S. 4. Hansen ER, Vejlsgaard GL, Lisby S, Heidenheim M, Baadsgaard O. Epidermal interleukin 1 alpha functional activity and interleukin 8 immunoreactivity are increased in patients with cutaneous T-cell lym- 131 phoma. J Invest Dermatol. 1991 Nov;97(5):818-23. .. 5. Luger TA, Schwarz T, Krutmann J, Kock A, Urbanski A, Kirnbauer R. Cytokines and the skin. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1990;19:35-49. 6. Ghaheri BA, Kempton JB, Pillers DA, Trune DR. Cochlear cytokine gene expression in murine chronic otitis media. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Aug;137(2):332-7. 7. Seifert PS, Catalfamo JL, Dodds J. Complement activation after aortic endothelial injury. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1986 Oct;12(4):280-3. 8. Bernstein JM, Schenkein HA, Genco RJ, Bartholomew WR. Complement activity in middle ear effusions. Clin Exp Immunol. 1978 Aug; 33(2):340-6. 9. Meri S, Lehtinen T, Palva T. Complement in chronic secretory otitis media. C3 breakdown and C3 splitting activity. Arch Otolaryngol. 1984 Dec;110(12):774-8. 10. Ryan AF, Catanzaro A, Wasserman SI, Harris JP, Vogel CW. The effect of complement depletion on immunologically mediated middle ear effusion and inflammation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1986 Sep;40(3):410-21. .. .. .. .. 11. Narkio-Makela M, Jero J, Meri S. Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999 Jun;116(3):401-9. ~ 12. Leitao MF, Vilela MM, Rutz R, Grumach AS, Condino-Neto A, Kirschfink M. Complement factor I deficiency in a family with recurrent infections. Immunopharmacology. 1997 Dec;38(1-2):207-13. 13. Treves AJ, Barak V, Tal T, Fuks Z. Constitutive secretion of interleukin 1 by human monocytes. Eur J Immunol. 1983 Aug;13(8):647-51. 14. Strober W, James SP. The interleukins. Pediatr Res. 1988 Nov;24(5): 549-57. 15. Juhn SK, Tolan CT, Garvis WJ, Cross DS, Giebink GS. The levels of IL-1 beta in human middle ear effusions. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1992;493:37-42. 16. Matkovic S, Vojvodic D, Baljosevic I. Comparison of cytokine levels in bilateral ear effusions in patients with otitis media secretoria. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Sep;137(3):450-3. 17. Kunkel SL. Inflammatory cytokines. In: Ward PA, editor. Manual of vascular mediators. New York: HP Publishing Company; 1993. 2-14 p. 18. Kunkel SL, Chensue SW, Strieter RM, Lynch JP, Remick DG. Cellular and molecular aspects of granulomatous inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1989 Dec;1(6):439-47. 19. Chensue SW, Shmyr-Forsch C, Weng A, Otterness IG, Kunkel SL. Biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of macrophage interleukin- 1 alpha, - 1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor production during the peritoneal exudative response. J Leukoc Biol. 1989 Dec;46(6): 529-37. 20. Gery I, Waksman BH. Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. II. The cellular source of potentiating mediator(s). J Exp Med. 1972 Jul 1;136(1):143-55. 21. Staren ED, Essner R, Economou JS. Overview of biological response modifiers. Semin Surg Oncol. 1989;5(6):379-84. 22. Gowen M, Mundy GR. Actions of recombinant interleukin 1, interleukin 2, and interferon-gamma on bone resorption in vitro. J Immunol. 1986 Apr 1;136(7):2478-82. 23. Ghezzi P, Dinarello CA. IL-1 induces IL-1. III. Specific inhibition of IL-1 production by IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 1988 Jun 15;140(12): 4238-44. 24. Nawroth PP, Bank I, Handley D, Cassimeris J, Chess L, Stern D. Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin interacts with endothelial cell receptors to induce release of interleukin 1. J Exp Med. 1986 Jun 1;163(6):1363-75. 25. Kilian PL, Kaffka KL, Stern AS, Woehle D, Benjamin WR, Dechiara TM, et al. Interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta bind to the same receptor on T cells. J Immunol. 1986 Jun 15;136(12):4509-14. 26. Kohase M, May LT, Tamm I, Vilcek J, Sehgal PB. A cytokine network in human diploid fibroblasts: interactions of beta-interferons, tumor necrosis factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and interleukin- 132 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 1. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Jan;7(1):273-80. 27. Matsushima K, Morishita K, Yoshimura T, Lavu S, Kobayashi Y, Lew W, et al. Molecular cloning of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) and the induction of MDNCF mRNA by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. J Exp Med. 1988 Jun 1;167(6):1883-93. 28. Cruse JM, Lewis RE. Cytokines and chemokines. In: Cruse JM, Lewis RE, editors. Atlas of immunology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC; 2004. p. 285-319. 29. Dinarello CA. Biology of interleukin 1. FASEB J. 1988 Feb;2(2):10815. 30. Conlon PJ, Grabstein KH, Alpert A, Prickett KS, Hopp TP, Gillis S. Localization of human mononuclear cell interleukin 1. J Immunol. 1987 Jul 1;139(1):98-102. 31. Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1. Dig Dis Sci. 1988 Mar;33(3 Suppl):25S35S. 32. Kunkel SL, Chensue SW. Arachidonic acid metabolites regulate interleukin-1 production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Apr 30;128(2):892-7. 33. Durum SK, Schmidt JA, Oppenheim JJ. Interleukin 1: an immunological perspective. Annu Rev Immunol. 1985;3:263-87. 34. Koltai M, Hosford D, Guinot P, Esanu A, Braquet P. Platelet activating factor (PAF). A review of its effects, antagonists and possible future clinical implications (Part I). Drugs. 1991 Jul;42(1):9-29. 35. Arend WP, Gordon DF, Wood WM, Janson RW, Joslin FG, Jameel S. IL-1 beta production in cultured human monocytes is regulated at multiple levels. J Immunol. 1989 Jul 1;143(1):118-26. 36. Goeken NE, Staggs TS, Ballas ZK. Monocyte suppressor factor is plasminogen activator inhibitor inhibition of membrane bound but not soluble IL-1. J Immunol. 1989 Jul 15;143(2):603-8. 37. Springer TA. Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature. 1990 Aug 2;346(6283):425-34. 38. Kim SJ, Choi JY, Son EJ, Namkung W, Lee MG, Yoon JH. Interleukin1beta upregulates Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in human middle ear epithelia. J Cell Biochem. 2007 Jun 1;101(3):576-86. 39. Choi JY, Choi YS, Kim SJ, Son EJ, Choi HS, Yoon JH. Interleukin1beta suppresses epithelial sodium channel beta-subunit expression and ENaC-dependent fluid absorption in human middle ear epithelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 12;567(1-2):19-25. 40. Watanabe T, Hirano T, Suzuki M, Kurono Y, Mogi G. Role of interleukin-1beta in a murine model of otitis media with effusion. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001 Jun;110(6):574-80. 41. Sato K, Liebeler CL, Quartey MK, Le CT, Giebink GS. Middle ear fluid cytokine and inflammatory cell kinetics in the chinchilla otitis media model. Infect Immun. 1999 Apr;67(4):1943-6. 42. Sato K, Kawana M, Nonomura N, Nakano Y. Course of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha in the middle ear fluid of the guinea pig otitis media model induced by nonviable Haemophilus influenzae. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999 Jun;108(6):559-63. 43. Barzilai A, Leibovitz E, Laver JH, Piglansky L, Raiz S, Abboud MR, et al. Dynamics of interleukin-1 production in middle ear fluid during acute otitis media treated with antibiotics. Infection. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):173-6. 44. Barzilai A, Dekel B, Dagan R, Passwell JH, Leibovitz E. Cytokine analysis of middle ear effusions during acute otitis media: significant reduction in tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations correlates with bacterial eradication. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999 Mar;18(3):301-3. 45. Yellon RF, Leonard G, Marucha PT, Craven R, Carpenter RJ, Lehmann WB, et al. Characterization of cytokines present in middle ear effusions. Laryngoscope. 1991 Feb;101(2):165-9. 46. Ondrey FG, Juhn SK, Adams GL. Early-response cytokine expression in adult middle ear effusions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Oct;119(4):342-5. 47. Gaffen SL, Wang S, Koshland ME. Expression of the immunoglob- ulin J chain in a murine B lymphoma is driven by autocrine production of interleukin 2. Cytokine. 1996 Jul;8(7):513-24. 48. Melhus A, Ryan AF. Expression of cytokine genes during pneumococcal and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae acute otitis media in the rat. Infect Immun. 2000 Jul;68(7):4024-31. 49. Jang CH, Kim YH. Characterization of cytokines present in pediatric otitis media with effusion: comparison of allergy positive and negative. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002 Oct 21;66(1):37-40. 50. Smirnova MG, Birchall JP, Pearson JP. The immunoregulatory and allergy-associated cytokines in the aetiology of the otitis media with effusion. Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):75-88. 51. Pennica D, Nedwin GE, Hayflick JS, Seeburg PH, Derynck R, Palladino MA, et al. Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin. Nature. 1984 Dec 20-1985 Jan 2;312(5996):724-9. 52. Gray PW, Aggarwal BB, Benton CV, Bringman TS, Henzel WJ, Jarrett JA, et al. Cloning and expression of cDNA for human lymphotoxin, a lymphokine with tumour necrosis activity. Nature. 1984 Dec 20-1985 Jan 2;312(5996):721-4. 53. Nedwin GE, Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Smith D, Jarrett-Nedwin J, Pennica D, et al. Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Sep 11;13(17):6361-73. 54. DeMaria TF, Murwin DM. Tumor necrosis factor during experimental lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. Laryngoscope. 1997 Mar; 107(3):369-72. 55. Dinarello CA, Cannon JG, Wolff SM, Bernheim HA, Beutler B, Cerami A, et al. Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) is an endogenous pyrogen and induces production of interleukin 1. J Exp Med. 1986 Jun 1;163 (6):1433-50. 56. Ikejima T, Okusawa S, Ghezzi P, van der Meer JW, Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1 induces tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and a circulating TNF-like activity in rabbits. J Infect Dis. 1990 Jul;162(1):215-23. 57. Waage A, Espevik T. Interleukin 1 potentiates the lethal effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin in mice. J Exp Med. 1988 Jun 1;167(6):1987-92. 58. Jung TT. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other arachidonic acid metabolites in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Laryngoscope. 1988 Sep;98(9):980-93. 59. Nonomura N, Giebink GS, Zelterman D, Harada T, Juhn SK. Early biochemical events in pneumococcal otitis media: arachidonic acid metabolites in middle ear fluid. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991 May;100(5 Pt 1):385-8. 60. Norris JG, Tang LP, Sparacio SM, Benveniste EN. Signal transduction pathways mediating astrocyte IL-6 induction by IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol. 1994 Jan 15;152(2):841-50. 61. Maxwell KS, Fitzgerald JE, Burleson JA, Leonard G, Carpenter R, Kreutzer DL. Interleukin-8 expression in otitis media. Laryngoscope. 1994 Aug;104(8 Pt 1):989-95. 62. Lane TA, Lamkin GE, Wancewicz EV. Protein kinase C inhibitors block the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells activated by interleukin-1, lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Nov 15;172(3):1273-81. 63. Mattila P, Majuri ML, Mattila PS, Renkonen R. TNF alpha-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM1, is linked to protein kinase C activation. Scand J Immunol. 1992 Aug;36(2):159-65. 64. Ophir D, Hahn T, Schattner A, Wallach D, Aviel A. Tumor necrosis factor in middle ear effusions. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988 Nov;114(11):1256-8. 65. Ball SS, Prazma J, Dais CG, Triana RJ, Pillsbury HC. Role of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 in endotoxin-induced middle ear Juhn SK et al.: Otitis Media and Inflammatory Mediators effusions. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1997 Aug;106(8):633-9. 66. Maxwell K, Leonard G, Kreutzer DL. Cytokine expression in otitis media with effusion. Tumor necrosis factor soluble receptor. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Sep;123(9):984-8. 67. Xie M, Zhou L, Jin X. (Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in middle ear effusions) Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 1997 Oct;32(5):280-2. 68. Nell MJ, Grote JJ. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in middle ear effusions in relation to upper airway infection. Laryngoscope. 1999 Nov;109(11):1815-9. 69. Bikhazi P, Ryan AF. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokines during acute and chronic middle ear immune response. Laryngoscope. 1995 Jun;105(6):629-34. 70. Sanderson CJ. Interleukin-5. In: Thomson AW, editor. The cytokine handbook. 3rd ed. London: Academic Press Limited; 1998. p. 175-95. 71. Sonoda E, Hitoshi Y, Yamaguchi N, Ishii T, Tominaga A, Araki S, et al. Differential regulation of IgA production by TGF-beta and IL5: TGF-beta induces surface IgA-positive cells bearing IL-5 receptor, whereas IL-5 promotes their survival and maturation into IgAsecreting cells. Cell Immunol. 1992 Mar;140(1):158-72. 72. Iino Y, Kakizaki K, Katano H, Saigusa H, Kanegasaki S. Eosinophil chemoattractants in the middle ear of patients with eosinophilic otitis media. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 Oct;35(10):1370-6. 73. Smirnova MG, Birchall JP, Pearson JP. Evidence of T-helper cell 2 cytokine regulation of chronic otitis media with effusion. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005 Oct;125(10):1043-50. 74. Perkins C, Wills-Karp M, Finkelman FD. IL-4 induces IL-13-independent allergic airway inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Aug;118(2):410-9. 75. Nutku E, Aizawa H, Hudson SA, Bochner BS. Ligation of Siglec-8: a selective mechanism for induction of human eosinophil apoptosis. Blood. 2003 Jun 15;101(12):5014-20. 76. Heinrich PC, Castell JV, Andus T. Interleukin-6 and the acute phase response. Biochem J. 1990 Feb 1;265(3):621-36. 77. Hirano T. Interleukin-6. In: Thomson AW, editor. The cytokine handbook. 3rd ed. London: Academic Press Limited; 1998. p. 198-228. 78. Kishimoto T. The biology of interleukin-6. Blood. 1989 Jul;74(1):1-10. 79. Principi N, Marchisio P, Bigalli L, Massironi E. C-reactive protein in acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Sep-Oct;5(5):525-7. 80. Yellon RF, Doyle WJ, Whiteside TL, Diven WF, March AR, Fireman P. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and bacterial pathogens in middle ear effusions. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995 Aug;121(8): 865-9. 81. Kerschner JE, Meyer TK, Yang C, Burrows A. Middle ear epithelial mucin production in response to interleukin-6 exposure in vitro. Cytokine. 2004 Apr 7;26(1):30-6. 82. Heikkinen T, Ghaffar F, Okorodudu AO, Chonmaitree T. Serum interleukin-6 in bacterial and nonbacterial acute otitis media. Pediatrics. 1998 Aug;102(2 Pt 1):296-9. 83. Fogle-Ansson M, White P, Hermansson A, Melhus A. Otomicroscopic findings and systemic interleukin-6 levels in relation to etiologic agent during experimental acute otitis media. APMIS. 2006 Apr;114 (4):285-91. 84. Fiorentino DF, Zlotnik A, Mosmann TR, Howard M, O’Garra A. IL10 inhibits cytokine production by activated macrophages. J Immunol. 1991 Dec 1;147(11):3815-22. 85. Hebda PA, Piltcher OB, Swarts JD, Alper CM, Zeevi A, Doyle WJ. Cytokine profiles in a rat model of otitis media with effusion caused by eustachian tube obstruction with and without Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Laryngoscope. 2002 Sep;112(9):1657-62. 86. Cooter MS, Eisma RJ, Burleson JA, Leonard G, Lafreniere D, Kreutzer DL. Transforming growth factor-beta expression in otitis media with effusion. Laryngoscope. 1998 Jul;108(7):1066-70. 87. Somers T, Goovaerts G, Schelfhout L, Peeters S, Govaerts PJ, Offeciers 133 E. Growth factors in tympanic membrane perforations. Am J Otol. 1998 Jul;19(4):428-34. 88. Wang KS, Frank DA, Ritz J. Interleukin-2 enhances the response of natural killer cells to interleukin-12 through up-regulation of the interleukin-12 receptor and STAT4. Blood. 2000 May 15;95(10): 3183-90. 89. Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae CO, Mukaida N, Matsushima K. Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene “intercrine” cytokine family. Annu Rev Immunol. 1991;9:617-48. .. 90. Schroder JM. The neutrophil-activating peptide 1/interleukin 8, a novel neutrophil chemotactic cytokine. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1992;40(1):23-31. 91. Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Walz A. Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines. In: Gallin J, Goldstein I, Snyderman R, editors. Inflammation: Basic principles and clinical correlates. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Raven Press; 1992. p. 247-63. 92. Strieter RM, Kunkel SL, Showell HJ, Remick DG, Phan SH, Ward PA, et al. Endothelial cell gene expression of a neutrophil chemotactic factor by TNF-alpha, LPS, and IL-1 beta. Science. 1989 Mar 17; 243(4897):1467-9. 93. Baggiolini M, Walz A, Kunkel SL. Neutrophil-activating peptide1/interleukin 8, a novel cytokine that activates neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1989 Oct;84(4):1045-9. 94. Leonard EJ, Yoshimura T. Neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1 (NAP-1 [interleukin-8]). Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1990 Jun;2(6): 479-86. 95. Huber AR, Kunkel SL, Todd RF 3rd, Weiss SJ. Regulation of transendothelial neutrophil migration by endogenous interleukin-8. Science. 1991 Oct 4;254(5028):99-102. 96. Zachariae CO. Matsushima K. Interleukin-8. In: Aggarwal BB, Butterman JU, editors. Human cytokines. Boston (MA): Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992. p. 181-95. 97. Takeuchi K, Maesako K, Yuta A, Sakakura Y. Interleukin-8 gene expression in middle ear effusions. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1994 May;103(5 Pt 1):404-7. 98. Johnson M, Leonard G, Kreutzer DL. Murine model of interleukin8-induced otitis media. Laryngoscope. 1997 Oct;107(10):1405-8. 99. Hotomi M, Samukawa T, Yamanaka N. Interleukin-8 in otitis media with effusion. Acta Otolaryngol. 1994 Jul;114(4):406-9. 100. Leibovitz E, Dagan R, Laver JH, Piglansky L, Raiz S, Abboud MR, et al. Interleukin 8 in middle ear fluid during acute otitis media: correlation with aetiology and bacterial eradication. Arch Dis Child. 2000 Feb;82(2):165-8. 101. Chonmaitree T, Patel JA, Sim T, Garofalo R, Uchida T, Sim T, et al. Role of leukotriene B4 and interleukin-8 in acute bacterial and viral otitis media. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996 Dec;105(12):968-74. 102. Storgaard M, Larsen K, Blegvad S, N dgaard H, Ovesen T, Andersen PL, et al. Interleukin-8 and chemotactic activity of middle ear effusions. J Infect Dis. 1997 Feb;175(2):474-7. 103. Nassif PS, Simpson SQ, Izzo AA, Nicklaus PJ. Interleukin-8 concentration predicts the neutrophil count in middle ear effusion. Laryngoscope. 1997 Sep;107(9):1223-7. 104. Smirnova MG, Birchall JP, Pearson JP. In vitro study of IL-8 and goblet cells: possible role of IL-8 in the aetiology of otitis media with effusion. Acta Otolaryngol. 2002 Mar;122(2):146-52. 105. Valente AJ, Graves DT, Vialle-Valentin CE, Delgado R, Schwartz CJ. Purification of a monocyte chemotactic factor secreted by nonhuman primate vascular cells in culture. Biochemistry. 1988 May 31; 27(11):4162-8. 106. Carr MW, Roth SJ, Luther E, Rose SS, Springer TA. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 acts as a T-lymphocyte chemoattractant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 26;91(9):3652-6. 107. Gunn MD, Nelken NA, Liao X, Williams LT. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is sufficient for the chemotaxis of monocytes and lymphocytes in transgenic mice but requires an additional stimulus 134 Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 1, No. 3: 117-138, September 2008 for inflammatory activation. J Immunol. 1997 Jan 1;158(1):376-83. 108. Jiang Y, Beller DI, Frendl G, Graves DT. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 regulates adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production in human monocytes. J Immunol. 1992 Apr 15;148(8):2423-8. 109. Vaddi K, Newton RC. Regulation of monocyte integrin expression by beta-family chemokines. J Immunol. 1994 Nov 15;153(10):472132. 110. Rollins BJ. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1: a potential regulator of monocyte recruitment in inflammatory disease. Mol Med Today. 1996 May;2(5):198-204. 111. Patel JA, Sim T, Owen MJ, Howie VM, Chonmaitree T. Influence of viral infection on middle ear chemokine response in acute otitis media. In: Lim DJ, editor. Abstracts of the sixth international symposium on recent advances in otitis media. Ft Lauderdale (FL):1995. p. 178-9. 112. Baggiolini M, Dahinden CA. CC chemokines in allergic inflammation. Immunol Today. 1994 Mar;15(3):127-33. 113. Schall TJ, Bacon KB. Chemokines, leukocyte trafficking, and inflammation. Curr Opin Immunol. 1994 Dec;6(6):865-73. 114. Schousboe LP, Rasmussen LM, Ovesen T. RANTES in otitis media with effusion: presence, role and correlation with cytokines and microbiology. APMIS. 2001 Jun;109(6):441-6. 115. Jang CH, Kim YH. Demonstration of RANTES and eosinophilic cataionic protein in otitis media with effusion with allergy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003 May;67(5):531-3. 116. Ebmeyer J, Furukawa M, Pak K, Ebmeyer U, Sudhoff H, Broide D, et al. Role of mast cells in otitis media. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Nov;116(5):1129-35. 117. Dennis RG, Whitmire RN, Jackson RT. Action of inflammatory mediators on middle ear mucosa. A method for measuring permeability and swelling. Arch Otolaryngol. 1976 Jul;102(7):420-4. 118. Boisvert P, Wasserman SI, Schiff M, Ryan AF. Histamine-induced middle ear effusion and mucosal histopathology in the guinea pig. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1985 Mar-Apr;94(2 Pt 1):212-6. .. 119. Goldie P, Hellstrom S, Idahl LA. Middle ear effusion induced by various inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides. An experimental study in the rat. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989 Sep-Oct;108(3-4):246-52. 120. Nakata J, Suzuki M, Kawauchi H, Mogi G. Experimental otitis media with effusion induced by middle ear effusion. Laryngoscope. 1992 Sep;102(9):10